Ground-Based Supercooled Liquid Water Measurements in Winter Orographic Clouds


  • Mark E Solak Atmospherics Incorporated Fresno, CA
  • Rand B Allan Atmospherics Incorporated Fresno, CA
  • Thomas J Henderson Atmospherics Incorporated Fresno, CA


The use of ice detectors at mountain-top sites in winter orographic weather modification projects in the western U.S. is described. Refinements in data acquisition and interpretation are presented. The superiority of ice detector analog voltage records over deice signal-only data for determination of SLW characteristics is demonstrated. It is shown that ground-based ice detector and radiometer-derived supercooled liquid water (SLW) flux estimates exhibit reasonable correspondence. Ground-based SLW flux records are used with precipitation data to produce indications of precipitation efficiency, showing orderly transitions between periods of efficiency and inefficiency within storms. Ground-based SLW flux data suggest that, in some instances, increased precipitation rates alone do not necessarily signal diminished seeding opportunity.




Scientific Papers