Preliminary Estimates of Increased Runoff from Additional High Elevation Snowfall in the Upper Colorado River Basin
AbstractEvaluations of winter orographic cloud seeding projects often have been based on precipitation because of difficulties associated with evaluation by streamflow at many locations. But most sponsors are primarily interested in the amount of additional streamflow that might be expected from successful cloud seeding. Preliminary estimates have been made of the percentage increases in streamflow that might result from increased snow water equivalent in the Upper Colorado River Basin. This was done by fitting linear regression equations to paired streamflow and snow water equivalent observations from several mountain watersheds for which streamflow was not significantly affected by transbasin diversions or upstream regulation of flows. The regression equations were used to predict percentage seasonal and annual streamflow enhancements for a 10 percent increase in mean April 1 snow water equivalent. Predicted seasonal streamflow increases ranged from 6 to 21 percent, with most drainages estimated to have 10 percent or more addtitional runoff. Possible reasons for differences in predicted streamflow are discussed. The reasons include snow water equivalent measurements that are unrepresentative of the watersheds, variations in the geology and vegetation, and drainage slope and aspect which affect incoming solar radiation. It is suggested that as cloud seeding technology improves, more attention should be given to targeting areas that maximize streamflow enhancement.
Authors that submit papers for publication agree to the Journal’s copyright and publication terms. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the manuscript’s authorship and initial publication in Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in the Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process to encourage productive exchanges and greater citation of the published article.
Articles are published online using restricted access for the first year. After the first year, articles are made freely available online. Immediate open access for an article may be obtained by the author paying an open access fee which is in addition to the normal page changes. Authors are expected to honor a page charge in order to support publication and distribution of the journal. After the author approves the gallery formatted version for publication, the Weather Modification Association’s Secretary will invoice the corresponding author for the page charges and payment is due within 30 days.